The diagram below show the development of the horse over a period of 40 million years. The evolution of the horse, with particular emphasis on the changing foot structure.

Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant



Chữa kỹ Top 5 đề SIÊU DỊ trong IELTS (YOUTUBE) by Andy Nova

The given diagram highlights the major changes during the horse’s 40-million-year evolution.

Overall, the horse’s evolution is marked by significant changes in foot bone structure and the size of this species, step-by-step transforming a small mammal into the modern horse.

The Eohippus living 40 million years ago bears a characteristic of a 4-toe foot bone. The number of toes is reduced by one during the next 10-million-year evolution, forming a 3-toe foot bone with the middle toe growing in terms of size which characterizes the Mesohippus. The Merychippus, the third species of the horse’s evolution, has a middle toe continuing to significantly evolve, almost double in size compared with other toes. The last 15-million-year evolution witnesses a radical change in the horse’s foot bone structure when the 3-toe foot completely transforms into the hoof.

This evolution also witnesses a significant increase in the size of the horse. In tandem, only Eohippus and Mesohippus bear the characteristic of the C-shaped backbone while Merychippus is characterized by the almost-flat backbone, resembling that of the modern horse. The 40-million-year evolution also witnesses the noticeable growth of mane and tail, which distinguishes the modern horse from its mammal ancestor, Eohippus.



Report Plan:

 Paraphrase paragraph: diagram>pictures; show>illustrate; development>evolution
 Overview/summary paragraph: 4 stages, mention the first and last stage
 Paragraph 3: report on the differences between Eohippus and Mesohippus
 Paragraph 4: report on the differences after Mesohippus up to the modern horse


The pictures illustrate the evolution of the horse over a 40 million-year period.

Overall, four stages are shown, beginning with Eohippus and ending with the development of the modern horse.

40 million years ago, the first horse, Eohippus, was comparatively small with a short tail. Its defining characteristic, however, was the structure of its foot, which had 4 digits. Each of the digits was relatively small. 10 million years later, it had evolved into the larger Mesohippus, with a longer tail and a foot structure of 3 digits.

Then, in the next stage of development, Merychippus evolved 15 million years ago. It was a similar size to Mesohippus, and also had 3 digits on its feet, but now the digits on the feet were larger, divided into segments, and the middle digit was very prominent.
Finally, the modern horse evolved. It is bigger than its predecessors, with a large mane and its foot structure is a single, very large digit.

160 words

lol you shared a picture - how am I supposed to branch that into a mindmap?